Archive for the Penal Substitution Category

Penal Substitution as a Valid Theory of Atonement

Posted in Biblical Theology, Penal Substitution on 10 February 2007 by msjohnson

I am writing in response to posts about the doctrine of ‘penal substitution’ (hereafter referred to as, p.s.) on the anti-NUCU facebook group. For all the posts up to this one, please go here

I am aware of my limitations regarding theology (a number of you are far more well read than I), and so I would point you to a book by John Stott entitled, ‘The Cross of Christ’ (IVP). It is a book that addresses all of the issues raised thus far. However, not having the book at home, I can’t use it for this post. I have instead ripped off whole sections (some parts word for word) from a reference book called ‘Evangelical Dictionary of Theology’, edited by Walter Elwell, Baker Book House.

The following list comprises a summary of the arguments raised against p.s., and the reasons behind them. I will attempt to address each of them in turn. If I misrepresent any of the following arguments supplied by Andrew and Alex, please inform me.

(1) P.s. is “a recent phenomenon”, an orthodoxy that was never meant to be.

(2) P.s. contradicts the ‘revelation of God in Christ’. (i.e. it is not consistent with Biblical teaching). The following points comprise the working out of this statement.

(3) P.s. entails a conflict between the Godhead (in particular the Father and the Son). In a sense, the Son insists on mercy, and the Father insists on justice.

(4) P.s. implies a justice system, independent of God, that he “is subject to”.

(5) P.s. fails to account for the fact that “forgiveness is God’s nature”, and that “blood is not necessary to obtain forgiveness”. Further, the Old Testament (OT) understanding of sacrifice is not of substitution, but of identification and public repentance. And sacrifice was not necessary for forgiveness in the OT.

Alex and Andrew subsequently made some further points:

(6) Substitution is not a Pauline doctrine.

(7) Jesus never said that it is his death that saves us.

(8) Jesus could not take eternal punishment, as he was on the cross for a few hours, and indeed, did not suffer eternal punishment.

The crux of the matter is, is there only one valid atonement model (Section A)? And is penal substitution a valid Biblical atonement model (Section B)? These two questions are addressed in the two sections below. Section C addresses points (7) and (8). Continue reading